Entries in plants for woodland garden (5)


Crane-fly Orchid in the Woodlands

For years I have noticed some distinctive corrugated leaves which push up in the woodlands in the fall and persist through the winter and into spring, then vanishing by summer. The leaves are blue-green on top and a rich wine color underneath:These lovely Crane-fly Orchid leaves are growing in the Woodland Garden.It's a wild plant, but definitely not weedy. I had no idea what it was; even after searching through garden books I could not find anything like it.

Then yesterday while browsing the internet (Do you remember the world before the internet?) I came across a photo of my wildflower, and I finally had an identification: Tiliparia discolor, also known as Crippled Crane-fly or Crane-fly orchid. 

I have orchids growing in my woodlands!

You may have some type of native orchid growing near you, too. The orchid family is huge, with almost thirty-thousand naturally occurring species of orchids growing worldwide. There are also over a hundred thousand man-made orchid species! The family is extremely diverse. Orchids may be tiny wildflowers, or they may be showy prize-winners grown in hot houses, but they all have a couple of things in common. First, they all have three sepals that form the calyx of the flower. The calyx is the protective layer around the flower in bud. When one looks at a flower bud, one is looking at the calyx. All orchids also have three flower petals. One of the petals is dramatically different from the other two and is called the lip. The lip is the most attractive part of the plant. It draws in pollinators, pointing the way to the central reproductive organ, called the column, which contains both male and female parts.

The Crane-fly orchid is a native plant to the eastern half of the United States, growing from Texas to New York and Massachusetts, hardiness zones 4-10. It grows in the woodland setting and requires mychorrhizal fungus to grow along its roots to survive. The symbiotic relationship is interesting. The fungus gains carbohydrates from the orchid's roots, while the orchid draws water and mineral nutrients from the fungi. This is especially helpful in poor, shallow soils of dry woodlands. In some areas it is a rare or endangered species. Each Crane-fly orchid has a single leaf, which can be either smooth or corrugated, and they tend to grow in clumps. After the leaf dies back in summer, the orchid sends up a single purple stem about one to two feet tall. Each stem has a couple dozen greenish-purple, translucent flowers.This is a public domain photo of a Crane-fly orchid. I hope to make photos of my own this summer!The thin stems and small flowers are easy to miss in the woodland setting, but I think I have seen these! I did not know what I was looking at and did not associate them with the pretty leaves that had disappeared in early summer. Night flying moths don't overlook these flowers, however. They are drawn to the pale flowers and the sweet nectar and are the primary pollinators of this native plant.

Now I am looking forward to the hot, muggy days of late summer, when I will be outside, searching for Crane-fly orchid flowers.


The Secret of My Woodland Garden

Leaves swirl in the breezes of November, glory fading in the last weeks of autumn. Thick piles of them blanket the woodlands where I have raked them from the moss paths onto adjacent natural areas. It was not hard work. Wet leaves are easier to rake than crumbly, dry ones, and rain for the previous two days made them easy raking. Golden sunshine, along with invigorating but not too cool temperatures gave my spirit a lift as I pulled at the sodden leaves. A lightweight, very wide rake helped, too.

I never tire of examining foliage in all its manifestations and stages. I love the shapes, the textures, the shadings and the way light plays against the veins. Below is an assortment of fall leaves:

November brought wonderful colors to the woodland garden. This photo is from the road, at the edge of the woodlands:

There is a secret ingredient to my colorful woodlands. I think it is what makes the woodland garden special. Can you guess what it is? I will tell you at the end of this post!

After raking leaves I enjoyed a stroll through the woodland garden. The little bridge is one of my favorite features: I take too many photos of it! Here are a few more, taken over a couple of weeks: Acer palmatum 'Orido Nishiki' turned from green to brilliant red almost overnight.

Weeping Deodar cedar 'Feelin' Blue' is a beautiful accent in the woodland garden year round, but its blue color is especially intense this time of year:

Here are some more images of the November woodland garden:The old birdhouse hanging in the trident maple tree is due for a refurbishment!

So, what is the secret ingredient of my woodland garden? 

It is the color blue! Look at all the woodland scenes above and imagine them without the blues of the deodar cedar and other plants with a blue tint to their foliage. Imagine the turquoise blue bridge gone. No faded blue of the old concrete bench. No blue-green birdhouse. Throughout the year the blues offer counterpoint and contrast to other colors in the woodland. One may not think of blue as a fall color, but I can't imagine the reds and golds without it!